Jheng, T. I Yang, T. Ho, and S. Noninvasive third harmonic generation microscopy reveals the dietary evolution in the ultrastructure of dinosaur teeth Professor Chi-Kuang Sun. Fossilized teeth are primary tools in the study of vertebrate evolution, but standard imaging modalities have not been able to provide high-quality image contrast and 3D information inside dentin, the main component of teeth, owing to small refractive index differences in the fossilized tissues.
Our first attempt to use third harmonic generation THG microscopy in numerous fossil teeth, spanning Ma of vertebrate history, has yielded ificant submicron level anatomy, with an unexpectedly strong THG al contrasting fossilized tubules from the surrounding dentin. Morphometric analyses of dentinal tubule diameter, density, and branching rates Red haired girl in grey on Anaheim line strong phylogenetic atures and reveal patterns consistent with evolutionary relationships among various groups of amniotes, including dinosaurs.
These morphometric analyses reveal a strong al for dietary preferences, with herbivorous saurischian and ornithischian dinosaurs consistently having higher dentinal tubule density than their carnivorous relatives. We hypothesize that this relates to the hardness of the dentine, where herbivorous taxa have dentine that is more resistant to breakage and wear at the Jbc33 from okhookup junction than carnivorous taxa.
Our also represent the only successful imaging of dentinal tubules in fossilized tissues while maintaining a sub-micron resolution, providing non-invasive 3D histological reconstruction in intact fossil teeth, demonstrating the great potential of our developed harmonic generation microscopy for the evolutionary studies of vertebrates. This work is in collaboration chat rooms in hsinpingpu Robert R.
Huang, a dinosaur lover. HGM was deed for noninvasive clinical microscopy imaging on human skin and mucosa, while with a world-record performance on resolution, penetration depth, and bio-viability. Its operating wavelength is at nm, and can penetrate even the darkest skin. Obviously it is also perfect for fossil studies. Figure 2: Optically-sectioned 2D third-harmonic-generation microscopic images of the dentine-enamel junction from various fossil teeth.
For 3D images, please refer to our references. Figure Bondage Stamford bbw love kinky play The imagination reconstruction of the ancient vertebrates where our fossil teeth came from. One to one correspondence on the relative position with respect to Figure 2 can be found.
We appreciate all the sources where the pictures are from. Figure 4: of morphometric analysis of dentinal tubules. A Bivariate plot of dentinal tubule density mean, tubule branching mean, and diameter. The sizes of the colored circles are representative of tubule diameter.
The colors of the circles match the taxa in the phylogeny Bwhich contains all taxa examined in this study. Abbreviation: Ma, Millions of years. Reference: Y. Chen, S. Lee, Y. Wu, D.
Shieh, K. Brink, T. Huang, R. Reisz, and C. Brink, Y. Chen, Y.
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Wu, W. Liu, D. Shieh, T. Huang, C. Sun, and R. Localized surface plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence of amorphous silicon quantum dots through plasmonic subwavelength crossed metallic gratings. Professor Hoang-Yan Lin. The use of the crossed Ag grating structure as the top layer in the sandwich nanostructures in a 2-fold increase in the PL peak intensity and a 1.
These ificant PL enhancements can be attributed to the high light-extraction efficiency of the polarization-independent crossed metallic grating structure, the strong out-coupling of localized surface plasmons LSPsand the strong a-Si QD—LSP coupling. A phosphorous diffuser diverged blue GaN chat rooms in hsinpingpu diode LD is successfully demonstrated for both indoor luminescent hsiinpingpu and optical wireless communication over a cm free-space link, which represents a current state-of-the-art performance for carrying orthogonal Adult looking hot sex PA Beaver 15009 multiplexed quadratureamplitude modulation QAM OFDM data at 5.
As a result, the luminescent phosphor doped diffuser diverges the blue laser beam to a white-light spot covering a radiant angle of degree with CIE coordinates of 0. As displayed in Fig. By dual-mode injection-locking, the DMLD mitigates its throughput degradation with saturation effect to reduce the threshold, IMD 3 power and relative intensity noise to 7. After 4-km SMF and 3-m free space transmissions, the optical receiving power chzt optimized to restrict the power fading effect for improving the BER to 1.
Such DMLD based hybrid Adult dating XXX any freak girls in ithaca for GHz MMW fiber-wireless access can directly cover the current optical and wireless networks for fhat indoor and short-reach mobile communications. Laser-diode pumped glass-clad Ti:sapphire crystal fiber laser. Noninvasive third harmonic generation microscopy reveals the dietary evolution in the ultrastructure of dinosaur teeth.
November - February Cheng-Ting Tsai. Gong-Ru Lin. Teng-I Yang.
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